Safeguarding of land and biodiversity
Areas connected to conservation and the promotion of biodiversity have an increasingly important role in the environmental agenda of leading international institutions. These are set out in the UN Sus- tainable Development Goals (Agenda 2030) and, in turn, with fo- cus of the European Green Deal, concentrating on the main causes of this loss of biodiversity, including methods of land use and water basins, excessive exploitation of natural resources and pollution. The European Union, which in 2020 published EU Biodiversity Strategy for 2030 (COM (2020) 380 final), is focused on defining binding targets to restore ecosystems that have been damaged, improve the health of habitats and species under protection, reduce pollu- tion and re-green urban areas. Furthermore, Regulation 852/2020 (Taxonomy) includes the “protection and restoration of biodiversity and ecosystems” among the six environmental goals with which it is structured (see also Disclosing sustainability: methodological note).
POLICIES AND TOOLS TO PROTECT BIODIVERSITY
The topic of biodiversity is at the heart of the Conference of the Parties (COP15), aimed at evaluating the successes and failures of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 and the Aichi Biodiversity Targets116 and drafting a global agreement to halt and turn around the decline in biodiversity. Negotiations between the parties, launched in 2019 to define a global agreement along the lines of the Paris Climate Agreement, generated an initial draft document in 2021, defining four goals for 2050: to enhance the integrity of all ecosystems, reduce the rate of extinctions and guarantee the genetic diversity of species; value nature’s contributions to people, promoting their maintenance and enhancement, and supporting the global development agenda for the benefit of all; closing the gap between financial and other means of implementation currently available and necessary to achieve the goals set.
The challenges recognised at the international level have prompted some important organisations to launch initiatives to support achievement of the goals. These include the TNFD (Taskforce on Nature-related Financial Disclosures), created through a partnership of Global Canopy, United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the United Nations Environment – Finance Initiative (UNEP FI) and the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF), with the aim of providing businesses with a framework to assess, manage and refer in relation to their dependence and impacts on nature, and the connected risks and financial flows. Better information will enable companies to incorporate the risks and opportunities linked to nature into their strategic planning, risk management and asset-allocation decisions.
In Europe, the EU Biodiversity Strategy for 2030 represents an ambitious, long-term plan to protect nature, halting the current process of ecosystem degradation. This includes four specific actions: i) establishing a larger EU-wide network of protected areas on land and at sea ii) launching an EU nature restoration plan focused on how to manage them sustainably, addressing the key drivers of biodiversity loss iii) introducing measures to enable the necessary transformative change in awareness and iv) introducing tools to tackle the global biodiversity challenge. The approach also includes availability of funding to support actions and definition of a new European legal and governance framework. The Commission will propose binding targets for the restoration of ecosystems, will include a mechanism for review and tracking involving clear indicators to assess the progress of strategy implementation, and will establish any corrective actions to be taken.
In Italy, for adoption of the European policy, in 2021 the Ministry for Ecological Transition launched a pathway for the definition of the National Biodiversity Strategy for 2030, through which it intends to contribute to the international goal of guaranteeing that by 2050 all ecosystems on the planet are restored, resilient and adequately protected.
Furthermore, the Ministry has published the IV Report on the state of natural capital in Italy (2021), which provides an update on the situation in Italy, with a particular focus on biophysical and economic assessment of ecosystem services and gives a panorama of strategies and actions to achieve the proposed goals.
Acea Group Companies conduct activities that could potentially have impacts on biodiversity, such as processing waste, operation of power generation plants, management of water sources and treatment plants and the distribution of electricity. On this basis, Acea focuses closely on safeguarding the ecosystems in areas where it operates, as defined in the procedures of the Environmental Management Systems, which pursue continuous improvement with a view to reducing environmental impacts, in the context of assessments for the planning and creation of plants, as well as management of operational areas. The Companies manage processes in compliance with the environmental authorisations issued to each plant. The environmental provisions contained in the authorisations issued by the competent administrative authority are established on the basis of technical and environmental assessments considering the area surrounding each plant, to safeguard the flora and fauna present and protect the natural environment.
Specifically, the activities involved in the Integrated Water Service are aimed at the maintenance of optimal environmental conditions and sites where water is drawn, near to springs, are managed with attention to the conservation of existing ecosystems and the preservation of the water flow.
Likewise, with treatment activities, the primary goal is that discharges, after appropriate treatment, comply with the limits es- tablished by regulations in the sector and are therefore compatible with the natural habitats of the receiving bodies of water. In implementation of this commitment, targets have been established for improved treatment efficiency for certain Water Companies (see the paragraph Strategy and sustainability, The 2020-2024 Sustainability Plan and operational goals).
For hydroelectric power stations, Acea Produzione manages withdrawals and inputs of water in compliance with the Concessions is- sued by the competent authorities and with applicable regulations. Management Projects have been prepared for all reservoirs (pursuant to Italian Decree of the Ministry for the Environment of 30 June 2004), with relevant impact studies for those in protected areas. The company provides for the protection of the habitats of all species present in order to mitigate the effect of the artificial barrier of the dams, which interferes with the natural migration of fish and the gradual sedimentation of the riverbed, with consequent changes in the native flora of the banks. In addition, protection of the aforementioned basins ensures the living conditions of the “resident” and “migratory” birds, which use these sites for reproduction/ feeding even during migration.
Other plants in the energy segment, active in the generation of electricity using fossil fuels and waste-to-energy, are incompatible with protected areas and therefore do not fall within them.
Acea has identified those of its sites/plants located in areas with a high level of biodiversity or Protected Natural Areas (EUAP) rec- ognised nationally and sites of the Natura 2000 Network (SCIs, SCZs and SPAs) 117 established at European level, through mapping of the infrastructure of the main operating companies (Acea Ato 2, Acea Ato 5, GORI, Gesesa, AdF, Acea Ambiente, Acea Pro- duzione and Areti)118. Analysis conducted on over 23,000 sites/ plants, including pylons but excluding underground electricity grids and pipelines, has shown that 2,290 sites, corresponding to approximately 10%, represent potential interference with the system of protected areas. Plants of the Environment Segment, carrying out waste-processing activity, are not located in protected areas.
Considering, instead, only the sites which could have a more significant impact on biodiversity, the number drops to 1,145 and the total percentage to 5%.
Significant impacts have been estimated taking into consideration the design, implementation and management phases of plants, and therefore exclude sites/plants with minimal impacts, such as the Water Kiosks of Acea Ato 2, the secondary substations of Areti and the photovoltaic plants included considered as residential plants of Acea Produzione.
The analyses conducted on the overhead electricity distribution network (1,472 km analysed) showed interference with protected areas for approximately 27%, corresponding to 404 km of network. The total number of natural areas intersected by sites/plants/ networks with a significant impact total 130 (55 EUAP Protected Natural Areas, 61 Sites of Community Interest (SCIs)/Spe- cial Conservation Zones (SCZs) and 14 Special Protection Areas (SPAs)119 for a total area of 223.4 hectares.
Chart no. 49 – Acea sites/plants analysed, with potential impacts on biodiversity and protected areas intersected
NOTE: where SCIs/SCZs and SPAs coincide, they are only considered once under SCIs/SCZs.
In the areas affected, there are many animal and plant species, including some on the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species (in the categories “vulnerable”, “endangered” and “critically endangered”)120, i.e. at risk of extinction in the short or medium term. These species there- fore represent a conservation priority.
A total of 45 species are potentially affected. Specifically, there are 3 plant species (1 critically endangered and 2 endangered) and 42 animal species, of which 7 are critically endangered, 9 are en- dangered and 26 are considered vulnerable (see Chart no. 50 for details).
Chart no. 50 – Number of species listed in the IUCN Red List with habitat in the protected areas intersected
In 2021, Acea carried out further detailed analysis of potential impacts on biodiversity, with the aim of identifying “priority” areas with high levels of biodiversity in which sites/plants/networks of Group Companies are located, i.e. the most fragile habitats or those most greatly impacted by external factors. For this purpose, data for the protected areas intersected was supplemented with in- formation provided by the Carta della Natura, a national IT system created by ISPRA (Italian Institute for Environmental Protection and Research), which is a cartographic and evaluation tool used to identify the distribution of Italian ecosystems across the country and analyse them based on their current state, considering physical, biotic and human factors.
Based on this information, it was possible to internally prepare an Environmental fragility index (EFI), aimed at evaluating the differ- ent habitats present and the portion of land occupied, the fragility of the habitat and the type of sites/plants present, for each protected area intersected by the activities of the main Group Companies121. This enables identification of areas with high levels of biodiversity, to be considered as priority areas, due to their greater "vulnerabil- ity". In detail, there are 12 of these areas: in eight of these — Par- co regionale dei Monti Lattari, Dorsale dei Monti Lattari, Piana di S. Vittorino - Sorgenti del Peschiera, Riserva naturale Valle dell’Aniene, Fiume Farfa (medium-high course), Parco regionale Bacino Fiume Sarno, Monte Mai e Monte Monna, Riserva naturale Litorale romano — sites/plants have potential impacts, on four there may be interfer- ence from electricity distribution networks (Parco Regionale urbano Pineto, Castel Porziano — fascia costiera, Castel Porziano Tenuta presidenziale, Riserva naturale dell’Insugherata).
Awareness of potential interference enables optimisation of opera- tions and the Companies have planned and/or implemented various actions to safeguard biodiversity, some in “priority” areas with a high level of biodiversity, as summarised in the info box.
THE MAIN PROJECTS IN “PRIORITY” AREAS WITH A HIGH LEVEL OF BIODIVERSITY
|“PRIORITY” AREAS WITH A HIGH LEVEL OF BIODIVERSITY||ACTIONS|
|Piana di S. Vittorino -
|The two areas are affected by the Peschiera-Le Capore aqueduct system managed by Acea Ato 2 on which works are in progress to double the upper section of the aqueduct. The project meets the requirements of the Envision protocol, the first rating system for sustainable infrastructure, which evaluates the econom- ic, environmental and social sustainability of infrastructure and includes specific evaluation criteria linked to biodiversity such as preservation of sites of high ecological value. In the river Farfa area, the Company has engaged the University of Naples Federico II for preparation of a technical and scientific study into the natural characteristics of the Farfa river that includes the collection site of the Le Capore spring. The study highlight- ed how the release of water downstream of the Le Capore springs has benefits on the ecosystem, supporting restoration of the natural river environment with its rich diversity of animal and plant species. For further information on the Peschiera project, see the info. box works on strategic infrastructure, Peschiera-Le Capore and Marcio aqueducts: safety works and authorisations.|
|River Sarno basin
|GORI is working on important works to resolve pollution of the river Sarno hydrographic basin through completion of the sewerage system and consequent collection and treatment. The project, carried out in synergy with various local players, also involves the Marevivo Onlus environmental association and will have significant impacts on recovery of the river ecosystem and, consequently on the entire Gulf of Naples. For further details, see the section Sustainability Plan and the info. box Energy for the Sarno in the section Quality in the water area, in the chapter Customers).|
|Valle dell’Aniene natura reserve||
To check for any critical issues in the habitats surrounding the major treatment plants in Rome, Acea Ato 2 has conducted special monitoring of areas it is responsible for and the surroundings. The studies conducted look at the treatment plants of Roma Nord, Roma Sud, CoBIS and in 2021 that of Ostia, the latter being located in the Riserva naturale Litorale romano area. The results achieved so far have demonstrated that the plants analysed, in particular those of Roma Nord and Roma Sud, have a positive effect on the ecosystem, constituting synanthropic biodiversity hotspots, i.e. places where species that coexist or are learning to coexist with humans, tending to form a rich and stable ecological community. Indeed, the specific environmental conditions and the low impact of man-made structures facilitates the presence of an extremely particular wildlife community. Similar monitoring is planned for 2022 at the Roma Est treatment plant located in the Valle dell’Aniene natural reserve area.
In the Litorale romano natural reserve area, Areti is carrying out a programme of decommissioning and demolition of overhead power lines and pylons Litorale romano natura reserve.
The initiatives launched by the Companies also involved other others, again of particular natural interest, although not classified as “priority” areas.
In order to limit the potential impacts of overhead infrastructure for the distribution of HV and MV electricity on birds, Areti employs risk mitigation initiatives in collaboration with the relevant authorities, making use of the best technological solutions for problems that are likely to occur in sensitive areas or areas of particular naturalistic value. Specifically, in compliance with the Memorandum of Understanding for restructuring of the electricity grid, works continue for the decommissioning and demolition of overhead power lines within important areas subject to protection, including Parco di Veio, Riserva Naturale della Marcigliana and, south of Rome, Riserva Naturale Decima Malafede and Riserva Naturale del Litorale romano. For details of the works performed in 2021, see the section Energy distribution in the chapter Energy Segment. Furthermore, Areti and the Park Authority of Parco naturale di Veio signed a pledge of commitment with which the Company guarantees finan- cial and operational support to launch a plan for the monitoring of birdlife with installation of bird-deterrent devices on earth cables of overhead lines, composed of plastic spirals that make the cables more visible, significantly reducing the risk of bird collision. Areti's commitment included the printing of two illustrated volumes providing information on nesting and wintering birds, a study on fatal- ity rates of birdlife along high-voltage and medium-voltage power lines, updating and reprinting of the tourist map of the Veio Park with addition of the paths of power lines involved in the work.
For a number of years, on the SCI/SCZ sites of Villa Borghese and Villa Pamphili, Acea Ato 2 has also been monitoring the presence of Peregrine Falcons in part of the Acqua Vergine springs area, a species which despite preferring open, wild areas, can nest in artificial structures, such as towers and bell towers in heavily built-up areas. Every year a large community including scholars, ornithologists and simple enthusiasts follows the lives of the Peregrine Falcons who live among the Acqua Vergine springs, thanks to a webcam managed by Ornis Italica, an association of researchers promoting the Birdcam. it project, which broadcasts images of a nest situated on Acea in- frastructure (www.birdcam.it). 2021 saw an excellent breeding result for the nest on the piezometer of the Salone water centre, with the hatching and growth of three peregrine falcons. The Company also has operations in the Castelli Romani area, where the Parco regionale dei Castelli Romani, is located. This regional park is characterised by its volcanic nature, which influences the chemical and physical properties of the water, and by limited water resources and a prevalence of wells. Here, in collaboration with the Municipality of Rocca Priora and the Park Authority, the Company has established a project, currently under analysis and evaluation by local authorities, for redevelopment and restoration of the Pantano della Doganella marsh, which has dried up over time, with the aim of recreating the conditions for natural filling of the basin with precipitation.
In the context of the project for development of the Water Safety Plan for the water systems fed by the waters of the Santa Fiora springs (see also the sub-section Water Safety Plans), AdF launched a scientific partnership agreement with the Institute of Geoscience and Georesources of the CNR (National Research Council) of Pisa, also aimed at assessing the vulnerability of the aquifer as a scientific knowledge base for definition of appropriate protec- tion areas by the competent Authorities. In addition, in 2021 the Company supported local authorities and associations for projects to protect local flora and fauna, combating the effects of climate change, habitat loss and/or the loss of specific pollinators. These include support for the Research Centre into Biotechnical Tools in the Farming and Forestry Sectors (CRISBA) for the conservation of local flora (dunal plants and wild orchids) and the Posidonia As- sociation for the development of a protocol for the proper conser- vation of the species, currently under series threat of extinction.
In 2020, as a tool to monitor ecosystem quality in areas where its plants are located, at the San Vittore del Lazio (Frosinone) waste-to-energy plant Acea Ambiente launched the project “UrBees”, in collaboration with bee-keeping experts and the Sacro Cuore Catholic University, aimed at environmental monitoring by observing the behaviour of bees, as bioindicator insects. Biomoni- toring is an innovative tool for environmental control that allows the effects of pollution to be identified, observing living organisms and their biological parameters through the study of ecological changes due to the effects of one or more polluting substances present in the biosphere.
Honeybees, in particular, are one of the best “sentinel species”. They support plant biodiversity and enable determination of quali- tative and quantitative data regarding the health or lack thereof of a specific ecosystem, along with mapping of an area’s biodiversity. The observations made have highlighted the overall good health of the bees and the absence of instances of unexpected illnesses or depopulation. Thanks to the busy flight of the bees, 2021 saw production of “39-flower honey”, in May, and “26-flower honey”, in June, from a blend of 39 and 26 botanical species, respective- ly122. The area of the plant which houses the beehives has also been re-greened with species of plants recommended for bee-keeping (oleanders, laurel and boxwood). Finally, at other Acea Ambiente sites, green areas are created with planting of native tree species aimed at reducing the visual impact of installations and increasing the variety of plant and animal species in surrounding areas.
MANAGEMENT OF WATER RESOURCES, SPRINGS
AND PROTECTED AREAS
Through the Companies Acea Ato 2, Acea Ato 5, GORI and Ge- sesa, the Group mainly uses springs located in uncontaminated areas for water supply.
The supply system of the area managed by Acea Ato 2 is composed of seven large aqueduct systems that transport water from 14 main sources to the distribution networks and from numerous smaller local sources (mainly wells), for a total flow that exceeds 21,000 litres/second. The drinking water distribution network extends for, more than 13,600 km123. In addition to this priceless natural resource, following upgrading works on the Grottarossa drinking water plant, Lake Bracciano, and the river Tiber also represent water reserves, after appropriate treatment, to be used only in the event of water emergencies.
EVALUATION OF GROUNDWATER AVAILABILITY
In accordance with that established by the criteria of the Water Framework Directive (WFD, 2000/60/CE), investigation of the availability, in quantitative terms, of potential groundwater resources and the possible impacts associated with the withdrawal of water resources from springs can be performed by monitoring certain variables through implementation of appropriate interpretive models. The main aspects to monitor can be identified as precipitation (rain and snow), evapotranspiration, surface run-off and therefore infil- tration into the soil in the area where the balance is assessed. For the refilling areas representative of the aquifers managed by Acea Ato 2, a continuous calculation methodology was implemented (from 1990 to today), for quantification of the components of the hydrological balance at a daily level. This methodology, re-proposed by Acea Ato 2 in accordance with national guidelines (Technical criteria for analysis of quantitative status and monitoring of ground- water stores. ISPRA 157/2017), whilst it is still in the experimental phase, can already be considered a valid tool for monitoring the quantitative status of groundwater stores.
Acea Ato 5 has continued a study on water availability performed on certain important sources. Analysis of precipitation and withdrawals has been performed for the years 2017-2021. Specifically, in 2021 a net increase in precipitation was recorded due to abundant rainfall in January and February, followed by a slight reduction until the summer. Rainfall patterns are therefore a primary factor in refilling springs. This information and the study methodology have enabled forecasting of low availability.
At AdF, in order to monitor the impacts of water withdrawals on sources used, an initial report was prepared on sources, which, on a monthly basis, allows assessment of significant changes in meth- ods of utilising wells and significant reductions in the available re- sources from the source. A second phase involved creation of dashboards dedicated to real-time evaluation of the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of sources, on the basis of the information gathered from remote monitoring by the company and regional meteorological and hydrogeological data. Also on the basis of this monitoring, three-monthly updating is carried out on a document shared with the Tuscan Water Authority regarding possible water-emergency status, with indication of critical issues involving “drought” (lack of resources) and management or infrastructural actions planned to handle such issues.
In the Municipalities that fall within OTA 5 Lazio Meridionale - Frosinone, Acea Ato 5 manages 80 sources, 74 of which are active, with 39 wells/well fields and 35 springs. In addition to these sources, the Company purchases/sells water through exchange points with other operators and with a Municipality in a neighbouring area. From the sources, the water is transported to the Municipalities through a supply network, which follows a complex distribution net- work beginning with tanks and dividing elements before reaching all users served, and totalling 6,027 km.
Gesesa, which operates in district 1 “Calore Irpino” in the Campa- nia Region, for the supply of drinking water, manages approximately 2,060 km of network, springs, primarily seasonal, and collects the majority of the water utilizing groundwater wells. There are three large collection systems: the Benevento plain, constituted of two well fields Pezzapiana and Campomazzoni, a well located at the aquifers of Monte Taburno and a well located near to the Grassano spring.
AdF, which operates in Optimal Territorial Conference no. 6 “Om- brone” (ex OTA 6), manages the drinking water system through a network that stretches approximately 8,330 km. Almost 50% of the water is drawn from the Fiora springs located on the slopes of Monte Amiata, while in the Siena area, the most significant systems are the Luco well field and the Vivo aqueduct, which takes water from the three springs of Amiata Ermicciolo, Ente and Burlana, located in the Vivo d’Orcia area.
The water system managed by GORI in the Sarnese Vesuviano territorial district has three main subsystems: Vesuviano, Monti Lattari and Ausino. The Vesuviano System is the most extensive of the three and arises from the functional integration of the Sarno aqueduct and the Vesuviano aqueduct, in turn interconnected with external elements of the Campano aqueduct, the West Campania aqueduct and the Serino aqueduct. This is responsible for supplying the majority of the OTA 3 municipalities. The Monti Lattari System serves the territory of the Sorrento Peninsula, the Island of Capri, and the Stabiese plain. Finally, the Ausino System, represents the supply framework for the municipalities of the OTA that occupy the eastern edge of the territory. The water drawn from endogenic sources represents approximately one third of the total, while the remainder originates from systems outside the OTA.
All of the Companies guarantee operation and correct maintenance of collection infrastructure, primary and secondary water plants, supply systems and distribution networks and user meters. Extraor- dinary maintenance is also performed (renovation, upgrading and/ or expansion of plants and networks).
WORKS ON STRATEGIC INFRASTRUCTURE, PESCHIERA-LE CAPORE AND MARCIO AQUEDUCTS: SAFETY WORKS AND AUTHORISATIONS
In 2021, Acea Ato 2 continued activities aimed at making the water supply system more secure, resilient and sustainable, in compliance with the Concession's capacity. In fact, having prepared the projects for the New Upper Section - Peschiera and New Marcio Aqueduct, Acea Ato 2 began planning further strategic works on a significant scale. This development took place despite difficulties during the pan- demic in adapting to a constantly evolving regulatory framework:
- with Italian Prime Ministerial Decree of 16 April 2021, the Ex- traordinary Commissioner was appointed to “Safeguard the Pe- schiera-Le Capore aqueduct system”
- with Italian Decree Law 77/2021 - “Semplificazioni bis” (L. 29 July 2021, no. 108) the works in question were introduced in Annex 4 of 44 and will be subject to a specific authorisation procedure.
Following implementation of Decree Law 77/2021, the Guidelines were issued for drafting the technical and economic feasibility pro- ject to act as a basis for assignment of public contracts for works under the National Recovery and Resilience Plan (NRRP), with which planning of large-scale aqueduct works has been aligned.
Finally, with Italian Ministerial Decree of the Italian Ministry of Infrastructure and Sustainable Mobility (MIMS) 517/2021, in the context of “Safeguarding and modernisation of the Peschiera water system”, four sub-projects were identified involving creation of important sections of supply systems/aqueducts, which could benefit from co-financing with sums from the NRRP. To access NRRP funding, these works must be completed by the deadlines set out in the Plan itself.
Table no. 47 indicates the location and surface areas in square me- tres of the zones subject to absolute protection124. It is noted that the sources illustrated are all drawn in “areas under water stress”, as defined at international level125 by the World Bank Institute. The water drawn is freshwater126, apart from 1.2% of the amount drawn by AdF, corresponding to approximately 0.8 million cubic metres, which is from marine sources. The amounts drawn by the Compa- nies from the springs listed are indicated in the Environmental Accounts.
To protect areas where springs are located, Acea Ato 2 also employs satellite monitoring. Surveillance is concentrated in the plac- es showing – on the basis of the comparison between two images taken from space at a distance of several months – an unjustified or suspect morphological variation, such as new, unsurveyed con- structions, earth movements, small landfills. The Company performs checks on site to identify any threats to water resources, ensuring precise monitoring. In fact, in 2021, thanks to the use of a satellite to perform change detection and additional inspections carried out along the supply and collection network, 65 violations were identified.
Table no. 47 – The main sources under protection
|sensitive area||municipality||AREA (m2) (*)|
|NELL'ATO 2 - LAZIO CENTRALE|
|Peschiera springs||municipality of Cittaducale (Rieti, Latium)||375.322|
|Le Capore springs||municipality of Frasso e Casaprota (Rieti, Lazio)||997.848|
|Acqua Marcia spring||municipality of Agosta-Arsoli-Marano Equo (Roma)||1.181.979|
|Acquoria spring||municipality of Tivoli (Roma)||17.724|
|Pantano Borghese Acqua Felice springs||municipality of Zagarolo (Roma)||779.143|
|Simbrivio springs||municipality of Vallepietra (Roma)||180.385|
|Ceraso springs and wells (Simbrivio aqueduct)||municipality of Vallepietra (Roma)||14.370|
|Pertuso springs||municipality of Trevi - Filettino (Lazio)||133.711|
|Doganella springs||municipality of Rocca Priora (Roma)||350.000|
|Acqua Vergine springs||municipality of Roma||500.000|
|Torre Angela wells||municipality of Roma||70.829|
|Finocchio wells||municipality of Roma||64.166|
|Laurentina wells||municipality of Ardea||13.661|
|Pescarella wells||municipality of Ardea||2.433|
|Lake Bracciano||municipality of Roma||169.200|
|IN OTA 5 – SOUTHERN LAZIO (*)|
|Posta Fibreno wells||municipality of Posta Fibreno (Frosinone)||20.000|
|Tufano wells||municipality of Anagni (Frosinone)||18.000|
|Capofiume spring||municipality of Collepardo (Frosinone)||10.000|
|Madonna di Canneto spring||municipality of Settefrati (Frosinone)||10.000|
|Forma d’Aquino wells||municipality of Castrocielo (Frosinone)||20.000|
|Carpello wells||municipality of Campoli Appennino (Frosinone)||15.000|
|Mola dei Frati wells||municipality of Frosinone||5.000|
|IN THE PROVINCE OF BENEVENTO – OTA – CALORE IRPINO|
|12 wells||municipalities of Benevento, Telese Terme, Castelpagano,
Vitulano, Melizzano, Sant’Agata de’ Goti, Cautano and Forchia
|Faitillo e Orto dei Ciuffi spring||San Giorgio La Molara||2.412|
|Gradola spring||Tocco Caudio||707|
|Pietrafitta e Ruggiero spring||Torrecuso||2.242|
|San Vito spring||Frasso Telesino||249|
|IN THE SARNESE VESUVIANO DISTRICT|
|Vado spring||municipality of Bracigliano (Salerno)||1.338|
|Forma spring||municipality of Gragnano (Napoli)||322|
|Imbuto spring||municipality of Gragnano (Napoli)||187.159|
|S.M. Lavorate spring||municipality of Nocera Inferiore (Salerno)||5.971|
|S.M. La Foce spring and well field||municipality of Sarno (Salerno)||60.202|
|Fontana Grande source||municipality of Castellammare di Stabia (Napoli)||330|
|centres of Murata, Pugliana, Casaliciello, Santa Lucia and Tartaglia||municipality of Cercola, Ercolano, Pollena Trocchia, Roccarainola, San Giorgio a Cremano (Napoli)||15.473|
|centre of Monte Taccaro and Angri well field||municipality of Angri (Salerno)||43.072|
|well field of Suppezza, Gragnano, San Mauro Montalbino, Mercato Palazzo and Santa Lucia||municipality of Castellammare di Stabia, Gragnano, Nocera Inferiore, Sarno (Salerno)||46.610|
|wells of Traiano, Stromboli-Vesuvio and Petraro||municipality of Castel San Giorgio, Mercato San Severino, Nocera Superiore (Salerno)||7.203|
|21 wells in the province of Salerno||municipality of Bracigliano, Castel San Giorgio, Corbara, Fisciano, Mercato San Severino, Nocera Inferiore, Nocera Superiore, Pagani, Siano (Salerno)||10.657|
|4 wells in the province of Naples||municipality of Castellammare di Stabia, Palma Campania, Roccarainola, San Giorgio a Cremano (Napoli)||1.529|
|IN OPTIMAL TERRITORIAL CONFERENCE NO. 6 “OMBRONE”|
|Spring of Galleria Alta – Galleria Bassa – Fonte Carolina||municipality of Santa Fiora (Grosseto)||37.046|
|Ermicciolo Spring||municipality of Castiglione d'Orcia (Siena)||3.885|
|Arbure Spring||municipality of Castel del Piano (Grosseto)||7.443|
|Ente Spring||municipality of Arcidosso (Grosseto)||327|
|Burlana Spring||municipality of Seggiano (Grosseto)||2.442|
|Luco well field||municipality of Sovicille (Siena)||10.063|
(*) The surface area data is estimated.
116 The Conference of the Parties in Nagoya in 2010 defined the Global Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 and new targets, the 20 “Aichi Biodiversity Targets”, to be achieved by 2020. These targets aimed to highlight the causes underlying biodiversity loss, to reduce the pressure on biodiversity and promote sustainable development, to improve the status of biodiversity at all levels, to promote the benefits deriving from biodiversity and ecosystem services, and to support the development of expertise and capabilities to reduce biodiversity loss and to conserve resources in the period 2011-2020, through programmes of engagement.
117The Protected Natural Areas (EUAP) at national level are those areas recognised officially by the State pursuant to Framework Law 394/91. The Natura 2000 Network, established pursuant to “Habitat” Directive 92/43/EEC, is the main policy instrument of the European Union for the conservation of biodiversity. It is composed of Sites of Community Interest (SCIs) which are then designated as Special Conservation Zones (SCZs) and also includes the Special Protection Areas (SPAs) established by “Birds” Directive 2009/147/EC on the conservation of wild birds. The areas composing the Natura 2000 network are not reserves where human activities are excluded: the Directives intend to guarantee the protection of nature whilst also taking “account of economic, social and cultural requirements and regional and local characteristics”.
118 Areas were mapped using QGIS, an open-source GIS application that enables viewing, organisation, analysis and presentation of spatial data, processing each layer of the sites/plants belonging to the Companies.
119 Where SCIs/SCZs and SPAs coincide, the areas are counted once amongst SCIs/SCZs. The figure for areas intersected was revised compared to that published last year, after verification.
120There are 11 risk categories, from Extinct (EX), applied to species for which there is definitive evidence that the last individual example has died, and Extinct in the Wild (EW), assigned to species for which there are no longer natural populations but only individuals in captivity, through to the category Least Concern (LC), applied for species that are not at risk of extinction in the short or medium term. Between the categories of Extinct and Least Concern, there are the threatened categories, which identify species at progressive risk of extinction in the short or medium term: Vulnerable (VU), Endangered (EN) and Critically Endangered (CR).
121For preparation of the EFI, the initial step was calculation of the relationship between the area of each habitat and that of the protected area containing it, generating a value for the portion of the protected site occupied by each habitat. This value was then multiplied by the fragility of the habitat as defined by ISPRA (Italian Institute for Environmental Protection and Research). Following this, all of the environmental fragility values of the habitats present in each protected area were added together. Having defined the EFI for each protected area intersected, this information was then cross-referenced with the individual Group plants with significant impacts located in the protected areas (plants identified as sites with potential impacts, from “low-medium to “high”). Finally, to identify the “priority” areas with high levels of biodiversity, the IFA was multiplied by the area intersected by the plants. The higher the value for the index, the higher the “priority” of the area.
122A photo-report has been published on the project, available at the following link: www.youtube.com/watch?v=P-IPb6F0i4M
123The value is higher than that added in chart no. 54, which features a geo-referenced value.
124The areas of absolute protection are the areas immediately surrounding the catchments or off-springs, as defined in Legislative Decree no. 152/2006.
126Water with total dissolved solids ≤ 1,000 mg/l.